And even when the apparatus exists, novelty ordinarily emerges only for the man who, knowing with precision what he should expect, is able to recognize that something has gone wrong.

Thomas Kuhn

Current structure

Figure D-1 shows the organizational structure of CUP that existed prior to 2016 and Figure D-2 shows the current organizational structure. The main change we made in 2017 was in response to the termination of a Senior Scientist (SS) program for database development was ending and the construction of the new underground laboratory was starting. The SS program is discussed in Section H (Recruiting and Fostering Next-generation Scientific Leaders). The newly formed Construction and Operation (C&O) group is responsible for the construction and future operation of the underground laboratories (including Y2L). As a result, CUP currently has four groups and three working groups. Their detailed working scheme is addressed later in this report. At the moment, the three working groups are mainly associated with the Director’s group (Neutrino Physics Group), but the working groups are working on the research projects of the other two experimental groups as well. In terms of the budget, the C&O group belongs to the Director’s group, but, in fact, the construction budget has been separate from the center’s research budget since 2017. Future budget plans are discussed below in section O (Plans for research program).

CUP has several supporting organizations such as:

  1. International Advisory Committee (IAC): composed of 6 members, and chaired by

Professor Young-Kee Kim (University of Chicago).

The other members are;

Professor Chung Wook Kim (KIAS)

Professor Georgio Gratta (Stanford University)

Professor Kevin Lesko (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)

Professor Pavio Gatti (Geneva University)

Professor Youngjoon Kwon (Yonsei University)

The IAC has been meeting at CUP once a year to check and advise the performance and research direction of the center. Starting in 2019, CUP will have an IAC meeting every two years. The members of IAC are experts in particle and underground physics.

  1. Executive Committee (EC): composed of three experimental group leaders from CUP and three outside professors that participate in CUP experiments. The outside members are;

Professor Sun-Kee Kim, Seoul National University (SNU)

Professor Seon-Ho Choi, SNU

Professor Hong-Joo Kim, Kyungpook National University (KNU

The six EC members meet together about four times a year. In addition to the regular meeting, irregular on-line meetings are held. The EC members mainly discuss human resource issues. Tenure-track and other positions are examined by the EC. They review candidates for open positions and make recommendations to the director about future recruiting strategies.

  1. Experiment groups: COSINE, AMoRE, NEOS, GBAR, XMASS, and LZ

CUP is running three main programs (experiments);

COSINE is an international collaboration between institutions in the US, Canada, Brazil, and Korea. Yale University and CUP are the two leading institutes in this collaboration. COSINE is a dark matter experiment using NaI(Tl) crystals to confirm the DAMA/LIBRA claim for an annual modulation of WIMP-like signals in NaI(Tl) detectors.

AMoRE is an international collaboration led by CUP that is pursuing a search for 0n2b decay. It is one of the major experimental 0n2b programs in the world. AMoRE has adopted a low temperature sensor technology for the experiment and chose 100Mo for the decaying nuclide.

NEOS is a domestic collaboration searching for short-baseline neutrino-oscillations at a shallow depth and very close to one of the nuclear reactor cores at the Hanbit nuclear power complex. CUP is currently preparing a NEOS phase 2 experiment that will run for an entire reactor burn-up period.

LZ is an international dark matter program that uses liquid xenon as a target/sensor material for a WIMP search. It has more than 1000 collaborators and is led by US groups. CUP is providing half of the PMTs for the outer liquid-scintillator veto detector. As part of this, it is responsible for PMT tests and performance monitoring.

GBAR is an international collaboration that will run an experiment at CERN to measure the gravitational force between antiprotons and the Earth. One of the main purposes is to determine if the interaction is attractive or repulsive. SNU represents the Korean collaboration, and CUP is providing scintillators and the DAQ system for the antiproton annihilation signals.

XMASS is a dark matter experiment running at the Kamioka mine in Japan. It is a Japan-Korea collaboration and CUP is providing the calibration sources for the experiment. It is in a second phase of R&D aimed at a future dark matter search.


Figure D-1: Organizational chart of CUP (2015-2016)


Figure D-2: Current organizational chart of CUP.

Relations between working groups and experiments

The Low Temperature group, under the Detector group, works on the development of low temperature detectors with MMC sensors for the AMoRE experiment, and also works on R&D for a possible low-threshold dark matter search experiment with cryogenic detectors. The PUR working group concentrates on purification R&D for both the COSINE and AMoRE experiments. The MEA working group develops DAQ systems and radio-assays of materials for all experiments. Table D-1 shows the relative arrangement between the working groups and the three main experiments: COSINE, AMoRE, and NEOS. The DM group is responsible for the COSINE experiment, and the NEUTRINO and DETECTOR groups are responsible for the AMoRE experiment. The NEUTRINO group is also responsible for the NEOS group.

Table D-1 : The relations between groups, working groups, and experiments








Low threshold detector R&D

Crystal Test (ZnWO4)

DR, Cryostat Design for I&II

R&D, Construct, Tests on Detectors

Expert operation of pilot exp.

Analysis on Performance and Data



Background understanding

Simulation for design

Simulation for Design of Cryostat and shielding of AMoRE-II

Background simulations.

Data analysis and simulation

Simulation for Design

Background understanding

Data Analysis


NaI powder purification

NaI crystal growing

ICP-MS measurement

AMoRE crystal growing

Mo purification technique R&D

ICP-MS measurement




Alpha Counter


AMoRE Notice DAQ

Muon Counter



Detector construction and installation

Data analysis


Construct Y2L-A5

Construct Y2L-A5

Construct ARF

Construct Infra for ARF (AMoRE pit, water tank, gas lines etc.)


Future plans

For the center to be successful and continue to search for discoveries, it is essential to have an underground laboratory that is much larger in scale than the current Y2L facility. The construction of the new underground laboratory will finish by the end of 2019, at which time the C&O group will manage the operation of both Y2L and ARF from 2021 for several more years. When COSINE and AMoRE-I finish data taking at Y2L, which is anticipated to be in 2022, Y2L operations will be combined with ARF. ARF will be the hub of underground non-accelerator particle and nuclear physics research in Korea. While CUP will manage ARF, research at the facility will not be limited to astroparticle physics research. IBS will open ARF to other institutes that are engaged in basic science research, such as KIGAM (Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources), KINS (Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety), and KRISS (Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science). The level of research activity that is not directly related to astroparticle physics will correspond to around 10-20% of the total. ARF is described in detail in section I.3.

CUP has established strong working groups to provide technical support to the center’s experiments. Basically, we focus on three areas of technology, so we can have working groups with sufficient manpower. The working groups are functioning now, and work according to their own schedules and plans. The Director negotiates the working arrangements between the research and working groups. Figure D-3 shows how the organization will be structured starting in late 2018.


Figure D-3: Organization chart of CUP from late 2018

We will soon add another working group that will do research on possible future experiments for CUP; at present there are three tentative proposals for future research. One is an extension of AMoRE-II to a ton-scale experiment that follows up on AMoRE-II. Another is focused on a large underground liquid scintillator detector with depleted 14C content and a mass of order of a kiloton for solar neutrino research and a dark photon search in conjunction with a high-intensity, low-energy electron accelerator located nearby the detector. The third proposal is to explore low mass WIMPs with low-threshold dark-matter detectors as a future, post-COSINE experiment. Low-temperature sensors or Avalanche Photo Diode (APD) type detectors are under study for this possibility.

The working group (“FUTURE” group) will be formed jointly with CUP executive committee members and CUP (working) group leaders, and some theoreticians at CTPU and universities. At first, the above-mentioned proposals will be studied quantitatively with the aim of producing detailed reports for each subject. Then, the working group will continue to propose, or solicit proposals for, additional possible experiments beyond the three mentioned above, with the goal of extending the exploration of parameters related to astroparticle physics. Figure D-4 shows how the ultimate goal of CUP can be achieved within the context of the existing experimental programs and technical strength.


Figure D-4: Techniques and Experimental Programs toward ultimate goal for CUP